Professional Training on
Guidance & Counseling in

Name of the course: Guidance and Counselling in School
Course code: TR1
Credit: 3
Semester: Second
Teaching hours: 48
Nature of the course: Theoretical and Practical


This course involves the strategies for guidance and counseling focused on the development of school teachers’ capability of implementing the skills they learn from this course. It covers the skills of identifying needs, problems, interests, ambitions, wishes, and expectations, and dealing with these aspects. It also includes the strategies for supporting students through counseling in personal, educational, social, and health aspects. School teachers (trainees) can enroll themselves into this course, study it independently, and achieve knowledge and skills of guidance and counseling. Periodic or occasional training in training centres will enable teachers to learn the course and implement the ideas in their schools (work places).

This course will be delivered through face-to-face and online or Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) modes. This course is expected to develop school teachers’ capability of guiding their students to choose learning areas, planning for education, and preparing for the future. In addition, teachers can develop micro skills of guidance and counselling through this course and support their students in solving personal, health and social problems. They can help their students become resilient in decision making.

Secondary Education Examination (SEE) graduates are eligible for this short course. As stated in the Nepal Open University’s Programme and Examination Guidelines 2018, teachers who receive this short course will be awarded a “certificate of completion”. This course is equivalent to 3 credits and it requires teachers to devote at least 48 hours for face-to-face and Online training sessions to complete this course. 

Course Objectives

The course will enable learners to:

  • Identify their needs, problems, interests, and expectations by using various approaches;
  • Equip themselves with skills for analysing cases, situations and environment;
  • Develop a conceptual framework for guidance and counseling in schools and offer strategies for supporting them.


School teachers are expected to demonstrate the following. They will be able to:

LO1: Demonstrate their ability to identify students’ interests, learning difficulties, and other problems;

LO2: Show their capacity to implement strategies to identify students’ personal, educational, and career-related issues and expectations;

LO3: Identify the challenges associated with environment, curriculum, teaching method, and socio- cultural issue that can be solved through guidance and counselling;

LO4: Apply strategies to help students overcome obstacles related to adjustment and learning;

LO5: Develop plans for coordination and collaboration with teachers, parents, and community members for guidance and counselling;

LO6: Implement data analysis, monitor programs outcomes, and support the system (3 hours).

Learning Time Plan (Volume of Learning):

This course will be delivered through three different modes: Face-to-face, online and offline.

  1. Face-to-Face (Contact Session): Face-to-face mode of learning means the physical presence of both teachers and students in a study centre and training schools. It comprises 48 hours of the total credit hours. When we deliver this course through both face-to-face and online modes, face-to-face mode comprises 15% (18 hours) of total credit hours.
  2. Online: Online mode of learning comprises weekly seminars and workshops on MS Teams as well as sharing of regular assignments, materials and projects through MOODLE. It comprises 25% (48 hours) of the total course hours.
  3. Offline: Offline mode of course delivery comprises 60% (144 hours) of the total course hours. It refers to students’ independent study beyond online and face-to-face situations. Students study the course by searching learning materials themselves and based on the provided reference materials at their flexible time and place.


Basic digital skills are mandatory for all students doing this course.

Course Delivery Strategy: Activity-based, Observation, Role paly & Participatory

Assessment Criteria:

  1. Participation
  2. Presentation
  3. Project-based learning (Individual and group work)


Unit 1
Approaches to a diagnosis of problems,
needs, and interests of the Students

This unit consists of various approaches such as socio-cultural, problem-solving, and inquiry that school teachers can apply to identify students’ learning attitudes, learning habits, interests, desires, strengths, and weaknesses. The socio-cultural approach includes engagement in socio-cultural events, identification of cultural factors (language, art, social norms, and social structures), and building relationships. Teachers can organise social events and cultural programmes for students and participate in these programmes. Such opportunities allow them to identify their students’ backgrounds, interests, learning problems, and desires. Being a part of social events, teachers can develop a rapport with their students so that they can diagnose factors affecting students’ learning. The problem-solving approach involves the implementation of the cycle of problem-solving and collaboration in learning activities. Teachers can engage students in problem-solving activities to understand their attitude towards learning and ability to learn content. In particular, a collaborative approach to problem-solving can help understand students’ problems closely. The inquiry approach covers conversation, one-to-one talk based on a questionnaire, and a self-answering questionnaire. Teachers can create group conversation and dialogue among/between students. The self-answering OR independently answered questionnaire allows students to share their interests, learning problems, and expectations.

 Unit Objectives

The unit will enable teachers to:

  • Explain the purpose, aims, importance, and code of conduct of guidance and counselling;
  • Implement approaches to identifying students’ interests and learning issues related.


  1. Definition, purpose, aims, importance, and ethics of guidance and counselling (3 hours)
  2. Socio-cultural approach to diagnosis (6 hours)
  • Participation in socio-cultural activities
  • Recognising cultural factors
  • Rapport building
  1. Problem-solving approach (3 hours)
  • Implementation of problem-solving strategies
  • Involving in collaborative activities
  1. Inquiry approach (6 hours)             
  • Conversations (group conversations and dialogues)
  • Interviews
  • Self-answering questionnaire

Learning resources

Ali, L. and Graham, B. (1996). The Counselling Approach to Careers Guidance. Edited by Susan Lendrum. Routledge.

Shrivastava, K.K. (2003). Principles of Guidance and Counselling. Kanishka Publishers & Distributors

Unit II
Analysis of Cases, Situations and Environment

This unit consists of students’ cases from school or community that mostly focus on the issues of dropout, low learning performance and personal social behaviours including the learners with special needs. Family-related issues, academic problems, inclusiveness, violence, clinical cases, peer bullying, physical and sexual abuses or cases about development period are common cases faced by the school counsellors. Such common cases and Nepali school-specific case analysis will be the scope of this unit. Along with the cases, situational or environmental factors are also analysed that will help for further guidance and counseling. In the case-analysis, general and context-specific factors will be analysed for identifying the problems that are necessary for the selection of academic, vocational and personal social counseling.

This unit includes three sections: Academic, Social and Career Guidance and Counseling-related analysis of cases, situations and environment. In the first section, cases with academic problems like low learning achievement, and factors influencing the achievement will be presented and discussed. In the second section, students’ disruptive or other social behaviors-related cases will be included. Cases and related factors causing the students’ drop out and irregularity in school will also be the part of this section. Professional career related issues embedded in the students will be included in the last section.

Unit Objectives

The unit will enable teachers to:

  • Develop skills on analysing the student-case from academic, social and vocational guidance and counseling perspectives
  • Build the competency on identifying the theory-based and context-specific situational or environmental factors that cause the students’ problems

Unit Outcomes

After the completion of this unit, learners (Inservice teachers/Prospective teachers) will be able to:

  • Identify the academic problems of the students that happen in school or community.
  • Examine the nature of the student’s academic problems that are vitally related to every aspect of the student, including the school environment, curriculum, teaching methods, and similar issues.
  • Identify situational and environmental factors for the academic problems and recommend the suitable guidance and counseling approaches such as crisis, remedial, preventive or developmental guidance approach.
  • Discover the social problems of the students that happen in the classroom, school or community.
  • Analyse the nature of the student’s social problems that are vitally related to the areas of affection, character, and morality. For example: adjustment, motivation, conflict, frustration, relationship with peers and others, social/emotional imbalance and similar problems.
  • Identify situational and environmental factors for the social problems and recommend the suitable guidance and counseling approaches such as crisis, remedial, preventive or developmental guidance approach.                              
  • Identify the areas of vocational (career) guidance and analyze the students’ interests and abilities to connect the world of work.

Unit Contents

To fulfill the objectives of this units, the following contents are selected:

  1. Academic G & C -related Cases, Situations and Environment                     (6 hours)
  2. Social G & C-related Cases, Situations and Environment                              (6 hours)                                                  
  3. Vocational G & C -related Cases, Situations and Environment                    (3 hours)

Learning Resources


Ali, L., & Graham, B. (1996). The Counselling Approach to Careers Guidance. Edited by Susan Lendrum. Routledge.

Ali & Graham (1996), p. 11

Daigle, J., & Ziomek-Daigle, J. (2015). School counseling classroom guidance: Prevention, accountability, and outcomes. Sage Publications, Inc.

Di Fabio, A., & Bernaud, J. (2018). Narrative interventions in post-modern guidance and career counseling: A review of case studies and innovative qualitative approaches. Springer International Publishing.

Gysbers, N. C., & Henderson, P. (2014). Developing & managing your school guidance & counseling program (5th ed.). John Wiley & Sons.

Gysbers & Henderson (2014), pp. 167-169

Kinra, A.K. (2008). Guidance and Counselling. Pearson.

Myrick, R. D. (2011). Developmental guidance and counseling: A practical approach (5th ed.). Educational Media Corporation.

Shrivastava, K.K. (2003). Principles of Guidance and Counselling. Kanishka Publishers & Distributors.


Adhikari, R., Upadhaya, N., Gurung, D., Luitel, N.,  Burkey, M., Kohrt, B., & Jordans, M. (2015). Perceived behavioral problems of school aged children in rural Nepal: A qualitative study. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Mental Health, 9 (25). 10.1186/s13034-015-0061-8.

Groot, A. (2005). Deprived Children and Education in Nepal. IRCWOC: International Research in Working Children.

Sun, R. C., & Shek, D. T.  (2012). Student classroom misbehavior: An exploratory study based on teachers’ perceptions. The Scientific World Journal, 2012

Cernat, V., &  Moldovan, L. (2018). Emotional problems and academic performance of students in manufacturing. Procedia Manufacturing, 22.

Cullingford, C. (1993). Children’s views on gender issues in school. British Educational Research Journal, 19(5), 555–563.

Unit III
Strategies for supporting students

When teachers are able to identify problems, needs, and interests of students, and analyse cases, situations and environment, they will provide necessary support to them in dealing with these issues. This unit covers the action plan for individual/group counselling for educational, vocational, personal and social guidance, parents/guardians information and meeting, and data analysis, monitoring programme outcomes, and support system. Teachers can adopt individual, group and overall school counselling strategies for academic, psychological and career enhancement.

This unit will enable teachers to:

  • Develop plans for individual and group counselling for academic, psychological and career enhancement.
  • Create the action plan for a counseling vision after identifying the needs of students

Unit Outcomes

At the end of this Unit, a trainee will be able to provide individual/Group counseling as well as classroom guidance to

  • Identify the need for guidance and counselling in their own school
  • Collaborates with school staff in planning and scheduling guidance and counselling activities.
  • Assist a student facing obstacles to learning for example, organisational skills, study habit, and career plan
  • Help students thrive in a safe learning environment
  • Coordinate and collaborate with teachers, parents, and community members in meeting academic needs of individual students
  • Work with parents and students to recognize their personal interest, strengths, and challenges
  • Use information and data to deliver and support comprehensive guidance and counselling programs at their school


  1. Action plan for individual/group counselling for educational, vocational, personal and social guidance                                                                         (6 hours)
  2. Parents/Guardians information and meeting                                      (6 hours)
  • Building trust, frequent parents teachers meeting to stay informed, guidance and counselling to parents.
  • Providing information to students, parents, and teachers on student progress.
  • Providing information to students and parents on career planning.
  1. Data analysis, monitoring programme outcomes, and support system (3 hours): Feedback and continuous development

Learning resources

Watkinson, J. S. (2013). Vision: A Conceptual Framework for School Counselors. Loyola University Maryland.

NCERT (2021). Human ecology and family sciences. Guidance and Counselling (Chapter 8).

Đurišić M. & Bunijevac, M. (2017). Parental involvement as an important factor for successful education. C.E.P.S Journal, 7 (3), 137-153.